Crop Family: Poaceae
Crop Scientific Name: (Oryza sativa)
Crop Vernacular Name: Akki, nellu, rice, biyam
Formulation: Soaked 400 kg of paddy seeds with ponni variety in mixture of ground nut cake of 10 kg of in 20 L of cow’s urine for 2 days and mixed it in the water supply channel
Ingredients: Groundnut cake, Cow’s urine
"Evaluation of Seed Soaking Times on Germination Percentage, Germination Rate and Growth Characteristics of Pistachio Seedlings -[Esmailpour, Ali & Van Damme, Patrick. (2014). Evaluation of Seed Soaking Times on Germination Percentage, Germination Rate and Growth Characteristics of Pistachio Seedlings. Acta Horticulturae. 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1109.17.]"
"The effects of soaking duration on germination and seedling growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) Roma VF, UC82B and Xina varieties were investigated. The treatments consisted of three soaking durations (12, 24, 36 h) and control replicated four times in a latin square design. Results indicated significant enhancement of germination by all soaking durations except for Xina variety where 36 h treatment showed no significant difference from the control. Maximum total germination (%) was obtained under 24 h treatment for all the seed varieties. Soaking durations of 12 and 24 h enhanced growth and dry matter accumulation for both Roma VF and UC82 B. The study has demonstrated the advantages of soaking seeds in water for about 24 h prior to sowing them in the field.[ S. Sabongari* and B. L. Aliero, Effects of soaking duration on germination and seedling growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill), African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 3 (1), pp. 47-51, January 2004]"
"Higher germination percentage is the key factor in higher crop production. Thus, strategies were made to increase the germination percentage of the seeds. One of the best strategies to enhance the germination percentage was soaking seeds in water before sowing. This experiment evaluated the best soaking duration (in hours) to enhance the germination and seedling of maize cultivars. Pot experiment was conducted under Latin Square Design (LSD design) with two factors. Factor one was genotypic variety of Maize while other factor was duration of soaking seeds in water. Soaking duration was maintained at 12 hours, 24 hours and 36 hours along with the control treatment (0 hour or without soaking), each with three replications. Other factor was high yielding cultivars Pearl, MMRI-Yellow and Sahiwal-2002. Results showed that maximum germination percentage (99%) was found in MMRI-yellow cultivar of Maize soaked at 24 hours of duration followed by 94% germination soaked at 36 hours, 87% germination at 12 hours soaking time and 69% germination rate at 0 hour soaking, respectively. Results clearly revealed that optimum soaking duration was 24 hours instead of 36 hours although 36 hours soaking showed second best result on MMRI-yellow variety. Results also showed that optimum soaking time (24 hours) was the best soaking time among 36 hours, 12 hours and showed significantly better results.[ Nadeem, M.K., Qaswar, M., Ahmed, N., Rabnawaz, Rasool, S.J., 2017. Effect of Seed Soaking Time on Germination of Maize (Zea mays L.). PSM Biol. Res., 02(1): 46-50.]"
"Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) seeds soaked in 50 times their weight of water for ½ to 8 days and air dried had faster rates of germination than washed or control seeds in laboratory tests at 38°C. Water temperatures of 15 or 25°C were superior to temperatures of 5 and 35°C during soaking treatment. The beneficial effects of soaking were retained in storage for at least 60 days after treatment. Soaking or washing treatments resulted in higher germination than control seeds at all concentrations of salt tested. Seeds soaked in fusicoccin germinated at a faster rate than seeds soaked in water. Under high temperature conditions in the field, soaking treatments increased the rate of emergence, but not total emergence. [J. M. Nelson, A. Jenkins and G. C. Sharples, SOAKING AND OTHER SEED PRETREATMENT EFFECTS ON GERMINATION AND EMERGENCE OF SUGARBEETS AT HIGH TEMPERATURE, Journal of Seed TechnologyVol. 9, No. 1 (1984), pp. 79-86 ."