10 kg of neem (Azadirachta indica), 10 L of cow‟s urine along with one half kg of matti perungayam or waste asafoetida (Serula foetida) and leave them overnight. The solution is diluted with water.
Formulation: (Azadirachta indica), cow‟s urine, (Serula foetida)
Ingredients: Neem (Azadirachta indica) cake, cow urine, water and mattiperungayam or waste Asafoetida (Serula foetida)
"Neem oil contains at least 100 biologically active compounds. Among them, the major constituents are triterpenes known as limonoids, the most important being azadirachtin .which appears to cause 90% of the effect on most pests. The compound has a melting point of 160°C and molecular weight of 720 g/mol. Other components present include meliantriol, nimbin, nimbidin, nimbinin, nimbolides, fatty acids (oleic, stearic, and palmitic), and salannin. [Campos EV, de Oliveira JL, Pascoli M, de Lima R, Fraceto LF. Neem Oil and Crop
Protection: From Now to the Future. Front Plant Sci. 2016;7:1494. Published 2016 Oct 13.
"Environmental factors shape the production and accumulation processes of plant secondary metabolites in medical and aromatic plants and thus their pharmacological and biological activity. Using an environmental metabolomics approach, we determined chemotypes and specific compounds on the basis of essential oils (EOs) from roots of 10 Iranian Ferula assa-foetida L. populations and related them to geographical, climate, and edaphic data. GC–MS revealed three distinct chemotypes characterized by (I) monoterpenes and Z-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide; (II) eudesmanesesquiterpenoids and α-agarofuran; and (III) Z- and E-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide. NIRS measurements indicated a similar but less distinct pattern. Structural equation models showed that EO constituents and content were directly influenced by edaphic factors (texture, pH, and iron, potassium, and aluminum content) and temperature and predominantly indirectly by latitude, longitude, and altitude. Predicting EO constituents or chemotypes by geographical, climate, and soil factors can be used in F. assa-foetida to select populations with specific EO characteristics. [Metabolomics Approaches for Analyzing Effects of Geographic and Environmental Factors on the Variation of Root Essential Oils of Ferula assa-foetida L]"