The crop duration is for 90 days and transplanting is done after 21 days. Before transplantation, they apply one bag which is 68 kg of groundnut cake per acre of land as a basal dose in the field. About 22 days after transplantation, weeding is done and 50 kg of neem (Azadirachta indica) cake is applied in the field. Prior to sowing or transplanting paddy, broadcast 25 kg of kolunchi or Purple tephrosia(Tephrosia purpurea) seeds in the field. Forty days after sowing, plough the green manure.
Formulation: Powder of (Azadirachta indica)
Ingredients: The seeds of kolunchi or Purple tephrosia (Tephrosia purpurea) seeds, groundnut cake and neem (Azadirachta indica) cake.
"Azadirachta indica) active ingredients which exhibit agro-medicinal properties conferring insecticidal as well as immunomodulatory and anti-cancer properties. The most prominent constituent of neem is azadirachtin, which has been established as a pivotal insecticidal ingredient. It acts as an antifeedant, repellent, and repugnant agent and induces sterility in insects by preventing oviposition and interrupting sperm production in males. [Chaudhary S, Kanwar RK, Sehgal A, et al. Progress on Azadirachtaindica Based Biopesticides in Replacing Synthetic Toxic Pesticides. Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:610. Published 2017 May 8.
"The farmers of tropical Asia are applying neem leaves to rice fields as green manure traditionally. Neem cake blending of urea is recommended for inhibition of nitrification and increasing nitrogen use efficiency. Field experiment conducted at the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India, during kharif and rabi seasons in 1984–85 with a short duration (105 days) rice cv. IR 50 showed that application of fresh neem leaf at 5 t/ha or dry neem leaf 1.25 t/ha with urea resulted in higher N recovery per cent and N response ratio and gave increased grain yield compared to the yield obtained due to the application of urea alone. Besides increasing the grain yield, neem leaf application could save about 50 per cent N application and give greater net returns to the farmer. [Santhi, S. & Palaniappan, Sp. (2008). Effect of Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica L.) on Growth and Yield of Low Land Rice. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 157. 114 - 117. 10.1111/j.1439-037X.1986.tb00056.x. ]"
"The amount of nutrients available from the soil both micro and macro, other than those obtained from atmosphere through photosynthesis (hydrogen, carbon and oxygen) to the roots of the plant is the main factor which limits the yield of crops. There is a constant need of fertilizer which is bio-degradable, environment friendly and maintains soil fertility for a longer period of time or can at least last throughout the year. Sensing of these parameters is essential as they are used to monitor the impact of past, present and future fertility practices and on changes in a field’s nutrient status. Sensing of macro nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) is possible with the electrochemical sensors. Azadirachtaindica tree has engaged a worldwide attention owing to its variety of medical properties, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant. Here, its extract in soil acts as a fertilizer that reduces the run-off of Nitrogen, and enriches the amount of nutrients and organic matter and thus it heavily reduces the necessity of synthetic fertilizers. (Azadirachta indica) extract together with the soil can also be considered as Nitrogenous Organic Fertilizer. We can use it especially on the soils that are poor in organic matter or where intensive crops are cultivated like vegetables and fruit [Chauhan, Nameesha Urooj, Shabana. (2019). The effect of (Azadirachta indica) extract on the soil nutrients and the NPK value determination by electrochemical sensor. International Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics. 5. 10.15406/ijbsbe.2019.05.00158. ]"