R Sundara Raman from Erode district in Tamil Nadu makes use of milk to prevent the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). The spread of the virus is believed to take place during the transplantation stage on the tobacco farm and subsequent field operations. The plants affected by the virus show symptoms of mottled leaves and discoloured inflorescence. In order to prevent the infestation, Raman a solution of 5 L of skimmed milk in 100 L of water.
Crop Family: Solanaceae
Crop Scientific Name: (Nicotiana tabacum L.)
Formulation: Liquid solution of 5 L of skimmed milk + 100 L of water
Ingredients: Skimmed milk and water.
"A substantial body of evidence, primarily from in vitro studies, suggests that some milk proteins interfere with viral infections. Lactoferrin (LF) has been the protein most comprehensively studied for its antiviral effects. Interference with viral infections is primarily based on adsorption of LF to receptors on the host cell's surface or on binding to viral particles, both enveloped and non-enveloped. In either mechanism, viral particles are prevented from attaching to host cells. Electrostatic attraction seems to play an important role in both mechanisms. In general, bovine LF is more effective against viral infections than human LF. Apo-LF is less effective than the iron-saturated LF. Antiviral effects of lactoferricin and other peptides liberated from LF are weaker than those of intact LF. Proteins other than LF, such as lactadherin, and peptides such as glycomacropeptide, also interfere with infection by some viruses. Chemical modifications of milk proteins that lead to changes in charges on proteins, and in charge distribution, enhance their effects against certain viruses. [Pan, Y. & Lee, Alvin & Wan, J. & Coventry, John & Michalski, Wojtek&Shiell, Brian &Roginski, Hubert. (2006). Antiviral properties of milk proteins and peptides (A Review). International Dairy Journal - INT DAIRY J. 16. 1252-1261. 10.1016/j.idairyj.2006.06.010.]"
"Lactoferrin, first isolated in 1960 from both human and bovine milk, has been demonstrated to exhibit antiviral activity against many viruses"
"Most of the milk proteins and peptides that have been identified with antiviral properties are broad spectrum components targeting general features and mechanismes involved in a viral infection cycle. Hence, many of these milk proteins do also demonstrate synergy with conventional antiviral drugs. Recently, the diverse immunomodulatory activities of milk proteins/peptides have illustrated these molecules interesting potential as antiviral therapeutics, though the precise mechansiems of immune regulation needs to be thoroughly described."