Hawari boils 5 kg of the leaves of Besharam (Ipomeae fistulosa) plant in a container having 50 l water till it reduces to half (i.e 25 l). Later 2.5 kg leaves are added and boiled. Afterthat add 60 g of zinc sulphate and 480 g of soap to the solution and spray. According to him multipurpose uses of the plant increases its potential as a herbal product. The practice is not new but it has tremendous potential in making agriculture safe by avoiding use of chemical pesticides. Another approach is that immerse bunches of betel palm (Areca catechu) leaves are covered with a cloth in diluted milk and store in a bamboo packing box. Dilute the fresh milk with 40% of water.
Formulation: 5 kg of the leaves of Besharam (Ipomeae fistulosa) plant, 50 L water, 60 gm of zinc sulphate and 480 gm of soap and betel palm (Areca catechu) leaves, fresh milk
Ingredients: The leaves of Besharam (Ipomeae fistulosa) plant, water, zinc sulphate and soap.
"The cotton leafworm, Spodopteralittoralis (Boisd.), is an insect that causes serious damages to more than 112 plant species belonging to 44 different families. Botanical extracts of Ipomoea carnea were very efficient against fourth instar larvae of Spodopteralittoralis. Based on LC50 and LC90 values, Ipomoea carnea acetone extracts were recorded 24.622 and 164.947 ppm, respectively. While hexane extracts were 232.677 and 15,377.590 ppm, respectively. Also, the treatment of fourth instar larva of S. littoralis with chlorpyrifos insecticide caused 9.497 and 91.126 ppm, respectively. The chemical constituents of acetone extract of I. carnea by using GC–MS analysis resulted in the most active compounds that were palmatic (iso propyl-hexadecanoate), silane, [[(3.alpha.,5.alpha.,20R)-pregnane-3,20-diyl]bis(oxy)] bis (trimethyl-(cas)5. and pederone that recorded (44.025%, 11.455% and 9.325%, respectively). Ipomoea carnea extracts were produced with different deformation abnormalities of all S.
littoralisstages.Keywords: Schistocercagregaria, Ipomoea carnea, botanical extracts, bioassay." [Nassar, Mamdouh&Taha, Mohamed & Mead, Hala&Salama, Mohamed. (2018). Evaluation of Ipomoea carnea (jacq.) extracts and chlorpyrifos insecticide against the cotton leafworms, Spodopteralittoralis (Boisd.). New Trends and Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences. 5. 01-11. 10.18844/prosoc.v5i4.3699. ]
"Lavandulastoechas L. plant is a perennial evergreen used as a fragrant ornamental and medicinal plant. In order to study the effect of foliar spray of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) (0, 1000, and 2000 mgL⁻¹) and sodium chloride (NaCl) salinity (0, 75, and 150 mM) on some physiological characteristics of Lavandulastoechas L. plants, a pot experiment was carried out at the Research Greenhouse of AzarbaijanShahidMadani University, Iran. Physiological characteristics [root and leaf dry weights, total soluble solids (TSSs), total anthocyanins, chlorophyll b, Zn²⁺, potassium (K⁺) contents, and K⁺/Na⁺ ratio] were significantly affected by the interaction effects of ZnSO4 foliar application and salinity levels. The highest root dry weight, chlorophyll b, anthocyanin, and Zn contents as well as TSS were found in the plants with NaCl0 × ZnSO4 2000 mgL⁻¹. For Na⁺, the greatest value was recorded with NaCl 150 × ZnSO40. The highest K⁺/Na⁺ ratio was found in the control plants. Foliar application of ZnSO4 promoted the total phenolic content, especially at 2000 mgL–1. The highest amounts of flower dry weights were recorded at NaCl0. Chlorophyll a, total flavonoids, stem dry weight, and essential oil content were affected with ZnSO4 treatment and salinity levels. The highest values for the essential oil content, chlorophyll a content, and stem dry weight were attained by the nonsaline treatment. Both foliar application levels positively influenced the essential oil and flavonoid contents of the plants. The results reveal that zinc application had marked effects on the physiological characteristics of Lavandulastoechas L. plants growing under salinity stress conditions." [Vojodi, Lamia&Valizadeh, Rana&Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Bagher&Pessarakli, Mohammad. (2017). Zinc Sulfate Foliar Application Effects on Some Physiological Characteristics and Phenolic and Essential Oil Contents of Lavandulastoechas L. Under Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Salinity Conditions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 48. 1860-1867. 10.1080/00103624.2017.1406105.]