For the purpose, he puts the powdered leaves of toothbrush tree in the space between the furrows of the sowed brinjal (Solanum melongena), chili (Capsicum annuum) and other crops. This makes the plants healthy and gives them protection against invading insects. For paddy (Oryza sativa), pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and other major crops, he mixes the leaf-powder with the dung-manure or organic compost before sowing.
Crop: Brinjal, Chili, Paddy, Pearl millet, Wheat
Crop Family: Nightshade family (Solanaceae), Poaceae, Grasses
Crop Scientific Name: (Solanum melongen),(Capsicum annuum), (Oryza sativa), (Pennisetum typhoids), (Triticum aestivum)
Crop Vernacular Name: Ringana, Marchu, Dangar, Moti Bajari, Gehu
Formulation: Powdered leaves of toothbrush tree and ung-manure or organic compost
Ingredients: toothbrush tree (Salvadora persica) leaf-powder
"Salvadora persica contain substances that possess plaque inhibiting and antibacterial properties against several types of cariogenic bacteria, which are frequently found in the oral cavity. The growth and acid production of these bacteria is thus inhibited.A comparison of alcohol and aqueous extract of miswak was also made. It was found that alcoholic extract is more effective than aqueous extract for antibacterial activity. In another study, miswak pieces were standardized by size and weight and tested against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Results found that the strong antibacterial effects against all bacteria tested is due to the presence of a volatile active antibacterial compounds . The effects of the extracts of Salvadora persica and derum were examined on the proliferation of Balb/C 3T3 of fibroblast and viability of carcinogenic bacteria. For this, aqueous extracts of miswak and derum were prepared and their effects investigated on the growth of Balb/C 3T3 mouse fibroblast by measuring the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Also the effect on the viability of various cariogenic bacteria was also determined. From the obtained results, it is concluded that miswak and derum have adverse effects on the growth of cariogenic microorganisms, with derum as more active than miswak; they show cell proliferation by 156% and 255%, respectively." (Khatak M, Khatak S, Siddqui AA, Vasudeva N, Aggarwal A, Aggarwal P. Salvadora persica. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010;4(8):209-214.
"Pakistan cotton suffered with cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) epidemic in the 1990s resulting in huge crop losses. Since then CLCuD has become a continuous threat to cotton industry in Pakistan. Several monopartite begomovirus species and satellite molecules are associated with CLCuD. There is threat of disease spreading to other parts of the world which are currently free from CLCuD due to agricultural trade and spread of vector, Bemisia tabaci. Natural resistance in tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum against CLCuD is very limited and is not durable under field conditions due to emergence of new viral strains. Genetically engineered resistance towards CLCuD has had limited success due to transformation limitations in cotton and the diversity of begomoviruses. Molecular approaches and conventional breeding are underway for developing cotton with CLCuD resistance."
"Crop disease remains a major cause of yield loss and emerging diseases pose new threats to global food security. Despite the dearth of commercial development to date, progress in using our rapidly expanding knowledge of plant-pathogen interactions to invent new ways of controlling diseases in crops has been good. Many major resistance genes have now been shown to retain function when transferred between species, and evidence indicates that resistance genes are more effective when deployed in a background containing quantitative resistance traits. The EFR pattern-recognition receptor, present in only the Brassicaceae, functions to provide bacterial disease control in the Solanaceae. Knowledge of how transcription activator-like effectors bind Dis leading to new methods for triggering disease resistance and broader applications in genome engineering. Highlights Transgene deployment of R genes in a single-locus pyramid may increase durability. Quantitative resistance genes can work additively with R genes and prolong durability. Pattern recognition receptors from sexually incompatible species can enhance resistance. TAL effectors allow novel approaches to precision genome engineering. Small RNAs directed against fungal pathogens can enhance resistance."