Spraying a mixture of 150 g lemon (Citrus limon) juice and 150 g tamarind (Tamarindus indica) leaf extract to 15 l water filled in one spray pump. After successful experimentation, he modified the method by mixing, in addition of the two ingredients already mentioned, 200 g solution out of the decoction of 250 g tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) powder and 150 g water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) leaves boiled in 5 l water. This showed improved result. Thus the farmer now uses lemon juice, tamarind leaf extract and the decoction of tobacco and water spinach for spraying on his crops. This methos showed improve result. Thus the farmer now uses lemon juice, tamarind leaf extract and the decoction of tobacco and water spinach for spraying on his crops. The practice was checked in December 2003 and rechecked by Pravin Rohit at Muvada village in Aagat taluka in June 2004, when the farmer also started using tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica).
Crop: Castor Crop
Crop Family: Spurges
Crop Scientific Name: (Ricinus communis)
Crop Vernacular Name: Eranda
Formulation: To control this pest, the innovator initially started by spraying a mixture of 150 gm lemon (Citrus limon) juice and 150 gm tamarind (Tamarindus indica) leaf extract to 15 L water filled in one spray pump.
Ingredients: lemon (Citrus limon), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) powder, water
"Deep ploughing of nursery area during April-May will facilitate the exposure of pupae to high temperature and thus destroy them. Sowing of Castor around tobacco nursery 15 days before sowing of tobacco so that the castor puts up sufficient foliage by the time Spodoptera infestation builds up. The castor seedlings attract female moths of Spodoptera for egg laying. Leaves having egg masses and tiny caterpillars are clipped and destroyed. Four `litlure' pheromone traps are installed (loaded with 2.5 mg pheromone per vial) per acre two weeks after germination. If the catch of male Spodoptera moths is more than 5 per trap 1 % neem seed kernel suspension (NSKS) in water on 3 week old seedlings and 2% NSKS on 4 week old seedlings is to be sprayed. For preparing 10 litres of 1% NSKS 100 gm of neem seed kernel powder is taken and placed in a small muslin cloth bag. The bag is dipped in a bucket (or any vessel) containing 10 litres of water and the bag is squeezed for 15 minutes to obtain a light brownish liquid. This suspension can be directly sprayed on tobacco seedlings. For preparing 2% NSKS of 10 litres, 200 gm of neem seed kernel powder is to be taken and prepared as above. Spraying 50 litres of 1% NSKS on 3 week old seedlings and 60 litres of 2% NSKS on 4 week old seedlings or 1125 litres of nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) solution prepared by 250 NPV infected larva by mixing with 250 g rice powder or starch powder during evening times or Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki @ 1.0 kg in 1125 litres of water per hectare controls the pest. If the number of seedlings damaged by Spodoptera exceeds 6 per sq.m. area spraying any one of the following insecticides from 4 weeks onwards is recommended. Emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 5 g in 10 litres of water Novaluron 10 EC @ 10 ml in 10 litres of water. During cyclonic weather, tobacco caterpillar, S. litura can also be controlled by putting jaggery and rice bran baits. This is prepared by dissolving 6.25 kg jaggery in 12.5 litres of water and adding to this emamectin benzoate 5 SG 200 ml. To this 25 kg rice bran is slowly added by mixing it thoroughly with a smooth stick so that the bait is made into small balls. The bait is broadcasted on the nursery beds during evening hours to effectively control the caterpillars. The other 3 species of caterpillars viz., (1) green caterpillar, L. exigua (2) green looper P. signata and (3) black caterpillar, A. ypsilon that sometimes infest the tobacco nurseries can also be controlled by spraying any one of the above insecticides."