Manual thrashing is a time and labour consuming process which burdens more to the farmer during severe weather conditions. This machine will be helpful to get rid of this hazy process.
The sheaves of grains are carried to the threshing floor manually or on the backs of animals like donkeys and bullock. Tractor trolleys and bullock carts are mostly used for transporting harvested crop to the threshing floor where they are spread out to dry in the sun and wind for a few days. The threshing and separation of the grain from the straw is done in a variety of ways. The crop may be beaten with sticks. As an alternative, implement consisting of a series of steel disks may be used. In some locales, a tractor may be repeatedly driven over the wheat stack spread on the threshing floor. The tractor-drawn thresher and self-propelled harvester combine cause the least grain contamination, but are capital intensive solutions. Farmers, who cultivate only one or two hectares a season, hire small threshers, which are, light enough to be carried from one field to another by two people. Motor -driven mechanical threshers have been devised. One type has a revolving rods with projecting teeth that strip off the grain when a sheaf of wheat is held against the moving surface. After threshing, the straw is stacked around the threshing floor, and used as animal feed, bedding, cooking fuel, to make sun-dried bricks, or compost. The wheat grain will be contaminated with pieces of straw chaff, broken grains, stones, and dirt when it is spread on the threshing floor for further drying. Labour saving schemes are employed in some farming communities. An old and simple improvement in threshing is to beat a sheaf of wheat and the grain heads against a low wall, an oil drum, or a wagon bed. This method is more efficient than trampling as the grains fall into a container or onto a woven mat. Small quantities are threshed but are less likely to become contaminated. In many developing countries manpower is shifting from cereal production to cash crops or to industry causing a dearth of manpower in the urban areas. However, by tradition, the whole family participates in the harvesting and threshing process together with borrowed or hired labour. Women also join in these activities. In places where mechanical harvesters are used women do not participate. Labour prefers to be paid in kind than in cash. In typical communities, the farmers share resources of the village. Manpower reciprocates labour in the harvesting and threshing schedule. Whenever threshing is by bullocks, the community shares the threshing floor and animals. Tractor-driven threshers and at times combine harvesters are used. The design and maintenance of the thresher are central to reducing the broken grain percentage. Threshing using animals is also common in many areas of world. Several animals continuously walk around a pole to crush. Threshing is an integral part of postharvest activities for cereal and legume crops or grain. In many developing countries, threshing is carried out manually by farmers that lead to low quality of paddy rice and grain loss. When the rice or grain production increases, consequently the manual threshing becomes arduous. In order to mechanize this process, a throw-in type thresher was designed and tested. The wind board was modified after testing to enhance threshing quality. Also, in place of old ways the whole machine is joined by bolts, nuts and rivets for easy assembling and disassembling. Output capacity from the performance test on machine was 316 kg/hr at a moisture content of 21%wb (wet base). This could attain 350-400 kg/hr when both, the speed and the feeding speed increase. The overall results are impressive and it will help improve drudgery and threshing challenges with small scale farmers. Cereals are the first cultivated grasses belonging to the Poaceous family. The popular cereal crops in the world include wheat, barley, oats, rice, maize, sorghum, and millets. Whereas the major cereal corps in the developing countries are maize, rice, sorghum, and millet. Harvesting constitutes a major operation among agricultural activities and differs according to the part of the plant to be harvested. A number of small, medium, and large threshers have been in existence for quite a long time. But due to the fact that they have low and poor performance in comparison with the traditional methods they have not been adopted to a significant extent.. As it is explained above, threshing is a major aspect that is usually carried out after harvesting of grain crops. This involves the beating of the grains from the stalk. This paper deals with the development and design of a grain threshing machine. Available evidence suggests that the mode of threshing rice in the rural areas in developing countries is by traditional use of hand beating of the paddy or using animals. This method is time consuming, energy sapping and often it breaks the grains. In this paper, the developed and designed grain thresher machine has the ability to winnow the premature grains and leaves, which are often lighter in weight. Thus, this will leave aside the massy grains from being collected. It is also capable of reducing time wastage, reduction in breakage of the grains and separation of the stalk from the grains. In addition, it is clear that, from the design calculation, the total manpower required to comb off the grains from stalk is only two people
Link: This machine is very use full and needs less labour and time. Using it will definitely benefit farmers in the field of agriculture.
Manufacturing Capacity: b) Design Support, d) Licensing
Problem Scale: In India 80% of rural population depends upon agricultural system. Even now a days conventionally ways of thrashing like thrush the crop by wooden blocks which needs large number of labours (man power). Even in present days especially in Kashmir this traditional way of threshing still exists in agricultural fields. As per this innovation is concerned it helps in many ways to reduce expenditures, man power, time consumption, easy handling, cleanness of crop and hence will prove purposeful for the formers.
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